Max Gerber] I am often asked whether I agree with the new group selectionists, and the questioners are always surprised when I say I do not. After all, group selection sounds like a reasonable extension of evolutionary theory and a plausible explanation of the social nature of humans.
Chad is a vast, ethnically diverse African country. It gained independence from France in after a sixty-year colonial period rule that did not create a meaningful national unity. Within the country's borders one may distinguish several national cultures that are based on the ethnoregional and religious affiliations of the population groups.
Many of the cultures can be traced back to a complex precolonial history of competing indigenous states and sultanates.
The name Chad is derived the from designation of the great Lake Chad originally called Kuri by the sixteenth century author and imam Ibn Fortu. Chad is somewhat similar to Sudan in that it has a northern part inhabited by an Islamic and partly Arabic-speaking population of pastoralist semidesert peoples, and a southern part of Christians and traditional religious people, engaged in mixed agriculture, crafts, and trade.
These two parts each comprise about half of the population. Postcolonial Chad has, like Sudan, been marked by deep regional-ethnic divisions and a violent history of struggle for power among the various elites that have alternative visions of the state and their place within it.
Armed rebellions and years of protracted and destructive civil war, in which the role of Libya was at times notable, have characterized Chad's recent history. Starting inthe armed conflicts subsided and some sort of democratization process was instigated.
It has an area ofsquare miles 1, square kilometersmost of it desert, semidesert, or savannah. In the extreme south there are lush forests and agricultural areas. The country is divided into three climatic-ecological zones from north to south: The country is drought-prone and suffers from periodic famine.
In the southwest, on the border with Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria, is Lake Chad, a shrinking water mass lying at an altitude of about feet meters.
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They are navigable for most of the year and are also used extensively for fishing. Chad's population is some 7 milliongiving a population density of The fertile southern third of the country has a density of There are an estimated ethnic groups in Chad although their boundaries are often hard to establish.
The largest are the Sara approx. Many of the ethnic groups are also found in neighboring countries such as Cameroon, Niger, the Sudan, and Nigeria, having been separated by the colonial and postcolonial boundaries.
Most Chadians live in rural areas. Urban centers include the capital N'Djamena approx. Life expectancy is approximately forty-eight years, while the Chad annual population growth rate is 2.
About 90 percent of the population lives in the southern 15 percent of Chadian territory. There are more than languages spoken in Chad, virtually all belonging to two great languages families: The precise extent and variety of the linguistic situation are not known, because of a notable lack of research.
Arabic, Sara, and French are widely spoken, the latter used in education and the administration, especially in the south. The use of Arabic, traditionally an important commercial language, is expanding across the country. The main symbol of Chad is the national flag, consisting of three vertical fields of blue, yellow, and orange-red, without any figurative decoration.
Additional national symbols are not known, although various parties and rebel fronts have used their own flags. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Chad did not exist as a political unit before the French conquest ofbut was an area of important indigenous state formation and had seen Arab immigration of groups collectively called Djoheina and Hassaouna and Islamization since the fourteenth century.
The descendants of these states in the north and east are today's seminomadic pastoralist peoples and cultivators in the northern and central parts of the country.
Southern Chad is inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that, although culturally related, traditionally had no strong centralized polities. The largest group among them are the Sara, although they themselves form a combination of twelve "tribal" groups that never showed any strong unity.
Other groups are the Mundang, the Massa, and the Mbum.
The southerners were the victim of a tradition of slave raiding by such northern groups as the Barma, Fulani, Bagirmi, Tubu, and Maba; this has left deep scars in the fabric of Chadian society.
It was because of the promise to end slave raiding and the killing of the notorious warlord and slave raider Rabih az-Zubayr, who was of Sudanese origin that the Sara peoples welcomed the French colonists in Under French colonial rule, the southern part of the country received most of the attention in the domains of economic and educational investment, and many people there converted to Christianity.
The Islamized north, seen as a vast expense of inhospitable desert with little productive resources except livestock, dates, and some cereals, was mistrusted and relatively neglected, and people there kept more to their "traditional" ways in a cultural and educational sense.
In the first decade of Chadian independence the northerners also remained relatively excluded from national politics; Northerners have had the upper hand in Chadian politics since It must be kept in mind that, before colonization, the "north-south" divide, so often referred to now, was nonexistent in Chad.
Inwhen independence was granted by France, Chad had no "national identity" recognizable to the population at large. Ethnoregional traditions formed the framework for group identification, with the "nation" only as an abstract concept.Indian Youth And Communal Harmony India's ethnic composition encompasses myriad streams of culture and religious faiths and sects.
As a multi-lingual and multi-cultured soc iety, India has. Identification. South Africa is the only nation-state named after its geographic location; there was a general agreement not to change the name after the establishment of a constitutional nonracial democracy in THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon.
Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. Workshop on Capacity Building Program on Social Science Class - X.
The Indian Heights School conducted a workshop on Capacity Building Program on teaching Social Science to class X on October 25 & 26, under the aegis of CBSE. communal harmony and the question of cultural identity COMMUNAL HARMONY AND THE QUESTION OF CULTURAL IDENTITIY Harmony and the co-existence of mutli-faceted elements are the two essential ingredients of any society which seeks sustainable longevity.
Prevalence. In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences.
It is often associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", and "the politics of recognition". It is also a matter of economic interests and political power.