Oaks, Quorum of the 12 Apostles. Critics' Arguments Latter-day Saints are repeatedly encouraged to rely on a witness of the spirit i. Holy Ghost to personally authenticate the truthfulness of the origins and content of the Book of Mormon.
Editorial revisions by Sherman Isbell of this article and of its footnotes are not to be distributed to other web locations for retrieval, published in other media, or mirrored at other sites without written permission of Sherman Isbell. Calvin and Kuyper may be taken as the initiators of two movements, historic Calvinism and Neo-Calvinism.
Whether Neo-Calvinism is to be viewed as opposed to historic Calvinism or as constituting a legitimate development may not be determined in the present article.
What may be established by examination of the texts, however, is that there are significant differences at least of emphasis, tending to develop into differences of religious principle and practice.
The central contrast to be drawn concerns the role of experimental religion in the Reformed Faith. The scene of the Reformed Faith in the Netherlands exhibits a remarkable phenomenon: In these circles, the older Reformed writers are held in the highest esteem, not only Dutch writers such as R.
Love, Owen, Perkins, Rutherford, T. The deplorable attitude of contempt all too often expressed with respect to the Puritans by representatives of the Kuyper movement contrasts sharply with the frequent favorable references to the Puritans in Kuyper's Stone Lectures, 2 as well as with the attitude prevalent in the Old Calvinist circles.
The following passage from Spier's Inleiding, not appearing in the English translation, gives expression to the disparagement of experimental religion among members of the school of Dooyeweerd: This mysticism mystiek which is found as well in the so-called Old Calvinist as in the ethical camp, because both schools are subjectivistic, is in direct conflict with God's Word and always expresses itself in the following symptoms: There was always a tendency towards Anabaptist dualism.
The aversion to art and culture among many, the strong tendency toward a legalistic construction of ethics and the separation of religion from daily concerns may be mentioned as evidences.
Furthermore, there was an unprecedented emphasis on the soteriological aspect of Christian doctrine so characteristic of all groups who do not grapple with the underlying issue of the connection of nature and grace.
De Jong goes so far as to say of the finest of the classical Dutch writers on covenant theology, Herman Witsius: The charge that the Puritans over-emphasized soteriology betrays a tendency to make light of the gospel of salvation, whether out of preoccupation with other aspects of theology or out of a so-called 'organic' view of nature and grace alleged to be foreign to Puritanism and incompatible with revivals of religion.
That the Puritans separated religion from daily concerns is a base slander, but the Puritans never succumbed to the error, pointed out by Dr. Patton, as quoted by Dr.
Machen, of making much of applied Christianity without being concerned about having a Christianity to apply. They had their hearts fixed on the one thing needful, the Christian's great interest, as a Scottish worthy put it, and then faced the issues of life in all spheres in obedience to the commandments of God revealed in the written Word.
Among Neo-Calvinists in Holland, as in Anglo-Saxon religious circles where the acids of modernity have been eating away at the Calvinism bequeathed by the Covenanters and Puritans, decay of experimental religion has gone hand in hand with deterioration of practice in matters of worship and conduct.
The tendency to aestheticize and liturgize the worship of a Reformed church betrays the loss of awareness of the regulative principle of worship, a principle clearly enunciated by Calvin, and taught in the Heidelberg Catechism 8 no less definitely than in the Westminster Standards.
The introduction of a flood of uninspired hymns into the Gereformeerde Kerken and the Christian Reformed Church has proved to be a symptom, as was the case in Scottish and American Presbyterianism, of incipient doctrinal deformation. In addition to the implicit nullification of the regulative principle, the elements of Pelagian, free-will religion and unhealthy mysticism pervading the conventional hymnody increasingly undermine what has remained of the doctrine and experience of sovereign grace.
Antinomian doctrine and practice, particularly evident with respect to the observance of the Lord's Day, is another prominent feature of the Neo-Calvinism that joins with Jesuits and Secularists in raising against the Puritans the allegation of legalism.
The question arises whether the deviations of the Kuyper-Calvinists from the experimental piety and scriptural practice of the historic Reformed faith are to be traced back to Kuyper's own principles. A distinction must be made between Kuyper's own views and the consequences of a certain line of thought emphasized by him.
It must also be remembered that Kuyper was a theologian of genius and of a genius more than theological, while his epigones have often been men of lesser stature. A similar observation may be made in the case of Dooyeweerd, except that Dooyeweerd would disclaim being a theologian.
In a number of important respects Kuyper did not set an example followed by his successors, while at one crucial point he fell into an error, magnified by them with the result of increasing the gap between their Neo-Calvinism and the historic Calvinism from which Kuyper appears to have deviated at only one major point.
The point of deviation is the doctrine of presumptive regeneration, with the related re-interpretation of the classic Reformed doctrine of the covenant of grace.
As has already been mentioned, Kuyper's praise of the Puritans, to the extent of frequently using the words puritanic and Puritan as synonyms for Calvinistic and Calvinist, contrasts sharply with the scorn vented by many who claim to be in Kuyper's line.
Furthermore, Kuyper does not write as an enemy of experimental religion or even of all mysticism.Historic Calvinism and Neo-Calvinism. William Young "Historic Calvinism and Neo-Calvinism" was published in the Westminster Theological Journal, vol.
36 ().Editorial revisions by Sherman Isbell of this article and of its footnotes are not to be distributed to other web locations for retrieval, published in other media, or mirrored at other sites without written permission of Sherman. Jonathan Edwards: Jonathan Edwards, greatest theologian and philosopher of British American Puritanism, stimulator of the religious revival known as the “Great Awakening,” and one of the forerunners of the age of Protestant missionary expansion in the 19th .
The Domestication of Transcendence: How Modern Thinking about God Went Wrong [William C. Placher] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. William Placher looks at classical Christian theology (Thomas Aquinas, John Calvin, Martin Luther) and contrasts it with the Christian discourse about God that evolved in the seventeenth century.
Appendix 2: Selected Other Views on Calvinism and Free Will Norman Geisler Chosen But Free, second edition (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House, ) In this popular book, Norman Geisler propounds a view that he terms “moderate Calvinism,” in which he argues .
Fifteenth Anniversary Edition; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, ), – [P]artly under the impact of postmodernism, the various “schools” of Christian apologetics have an opportunity to draw closer together than they have usually been in the past.
Calvinism sees the atonement as limited, while Arminianism sees it as unlimited. This is the most controversial of the five points.
Limited atonement is the belief that Jesus only died for the elect.