A thicket of wild cannabis in IslamabadPakistan. Cannabis is an annualdioeciousflowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitatewith serrate leaflets.
Hydrostatic weighing Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure triglycerides with an average density of about 0.
Most modern body composition laboratories today use the value of 1. With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water.
A correction is made for the buoyancy of air in the lungs and other gases in the body spaces. Whole-body air displacement plethysmography[ edit ] Body composition measurement with whole-body air displacement plethysmography ADP technology Whole-body air displacement plethysmography ADP is a recognised and scientifically validated densitometric method to measure human body fat percentage.
Air-displacement plethysmography offers several advantages over established reference methods, including a quick, comfortable, automated, noninvasive, and safe measurement process, and accommodation of various subject types e.
The light is reflected from the underlying muscle and absorbed by the fatileur. The method is safe, noninvasive, rapid and easy to use.
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DXA formerly DEXAis a newer method for estimating body fat percentage, and determining body composition and bone mineral density. X-rays of two different energies are used to scan the body, one Weighing paper which is absorbed more strongly by fat than the other.
A computer can subtract one image from the other, and the difference indicates the amount of fat relative to other tissues at each point. A sum over the entire image enables calculation of the overall body composition.
Expansions[ edit ] There are several more complicated procedures that more accurately determine body fat percentage. Some, referred to as multicompartment models, can include DXA measurement of bone, plus independent measures of body water using the dilution principle with isotopically labeled water and body volume either by water displacement or air plethysmography.
Various other components may be independently measured, such as total body potassium. In-vivo neutron activation can quantify all the elements of the body and use mathematical relations among the measured elements in the different components of the body fat, water, protein, etc.
Since fat tissue has a lower density than muscles and bones, it is possible to estimate the fat content. This estimate is distorted by the fact that muscles and bones have different densities: Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message The bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA method is a lower-cost from less than one to several hundred US dollars in  but less accurate way to estimate body fat percentage.
The general principle behind BIA: The resistance between the conductors will provide a measure of body fat between a pair of electrodes, since the resistance to electricity varies between adiposemuscular and skeletal tissue. Factors that affect the accuracy and precision of this method include instrumentation, subject factors, technician skill, and the prediction equation formulated to estimate the fat-free mass.
Each bare foot may be placed on an electrode, with the current sent up one leg, across the abdomen and down the other leg. For convenience, an instrument which must be stepped on will also measure weight. Alternatively, an electrode may be held in each hand; calculation of fat percentage uses the weight, so that must be measured with scales and entered by the user.
The two methods may give different percentages, without being inconsistent, as they measure fat in different parts of the body. More sophisticated instruments for domestic use are available with electrodes for both feet and hands. There is little scope for technician error as such, but factors such as eating, drinking and exercising must be controlled  since hydration level is an important source of error in determining the flow of the electric current to estimate body fat.
The instructions for use of instruments typically recommended not making measurements soon after drinking or eating or exercising, or when dehydrated. Instruments require details such as sex and age to be entered, and use formulae taking these into account; for example, men and women store fat differently around the abdomen and thigh region.
Different BIA analysers may vary. Population-specific equations are available for some instruments, which are only reliable for specific ethnic groups, populations, and conditions.Sep 04, · Weighing paper has two functions: first, it keeps whatever you're weighing from gunking up the balance pan, and second, weighing paper is generally very non-sticky, making it .
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